- The imperative for non-oil export to be facilitated especially in this part of the world
cannot be overemphasized. In addition to Ease of Doing Business, Nigeria now needs
the ‘Ease of Doing Export’.
- EEG is the only incentive that still works in Nigeria. The government must honour the
debts owed to various sectors and redeem the backlog of EEG claims. (In China, it
takes one week to redeem the exporters’ export tax rebate) Government should honour
the annual allocation in the Appropriation Bill to provide for EEG
- Rather than always chasing Exporters to bring back Export proceeds, it is important
for CBN to show the exporter that the Nigerian government is aware of or concerned
about the likely multiple legal challenges the exporters are facing that could impede
the repatriation of export proceeds.
- Nigeria is capturing huge bulk shipments going through the ports, the borders are
probably excluded from Nigeria’s export performance and figures. NEPC should
collaborate with the NSC, CBN and other relevant bodies to have an export desk at
the Northern borders especially where shipments can be captured using the NXP as it
is done at the Seme Border.
- If export-oriented policies are too draconian and unattractive, exporters will go to the
free funds market and CBN will never be able to capture these transactions. Let us
strike a balance that we are all working for the good of Nigeria and it is important to
ensure that all exports are captured officially.
- CBN should through NPNEN do another Townhall meeting as quickly as possible so
exporters and management of CBN can hear the challenges that exporters are going
through. This will help us go to the drawing board to formulate policies that engender
an increase in the desire to export officially. Trade and Exchange department should
help make this happen.
- Made in Nigeria products are being rejected from the EU market because of some
pesticides which is approved by NAFDAC but being rejected by the EU. These
pesticides are in the market with their NAFDAC number. One of them has the chemical
name ‘Chlorpyrifos’ The Hibiscus association had discussed this issue with the DG,
NAQS. Unless this chemical is banned by NAFDAC, these rejections in the EU will
continue. NAFDAC and NAQS should intensify their efforts in creating awareness on
the usage of these pesticides on agricultural commodities.
- NAFDAC should review its 21 days waiting period to get lab test results of products
before shipment can be done. This introduces unnecessary delay for the exporter who
already has a contract to honor. A 50% reduction should be sufficient.
- NAFDAC should establish a country standard for all agro allied products. When this is
done NAFDAC must strengthen its relationship with sister organisations all around the
world and make them understand that there is no health hazard from products coming
from Nigeria as long as they have conformed to the country standard quality
specifications, NAFDAC would have done 50 years achievement with just one step.
- The general experience is that the cost of moving goods within Lagos to the port is
higher or sometimes twice the cost of transportation of goods from outside Lagos. This
clearly takes away significant amount of profit that the exporters could be making and
causes unnecessary delays to the extent that some exporters are now exploring the
use of alternative ports. This may be a solution in the end but for ports that are not
geared for export or lack experience in export, there will be initial teething problems.
The NPA and NEPC are encouraging alternative ports to reduce the load away from
Lagos, however this does not address the difficulty of moving goods on the roads which
is still a big one.
- Shipment from Onne port can be done within 3-4 weeks, however the shipping
companies charge double the expected freight rate compared to Apapa with the
distance not enough to warrant such charges. Also, the port operators at Onne have
very exorbitant charges and if there is any delay in the shipment, they charge you even
if the delay is caused by them. A lot of these things are outside the control of the
exporter and hence should be dealt with in fairness to the exporter. The NSC and
NEPC should wade into this matter for the interest of the exporter.
- If the congestion in Apapa and logistics bottlenecks is to be resolved, this exorbitant
port operations in alternates ports should be resolved as a matter of urgency.
- As pertaining to the possibilities of doing partial shipment and partial NXP, CBN would
need to put out the communication of how the process works especially for those that
need more clarity.
- Exporters are losing money due to inconsistent policies and regulations especially
regarding payment limits for shipping, NXP etc. Carriers are increasing rates daily due
to congestion at the port and exporters are losing money. The CBN and other
regulators need to look at this by engaging practicing exporters on the field.
- Export logistics alone is taking up to 30% if not more of ROI. And this is not making
export attractive any longer. From Apapa into the port is costing about N400,000, and
if vessels are used some will charge over 700,000. It doesn’t make sense anymore.
NSC, NPA and other relevant stakeholders should please consider the fate of
- Shipping lines in Nigeria now refuse to carry cargoes, exports that are meant to leave
Nigeria to their destinations, they would rather pick empty containers. At a point
Starlink Global Ltd had over 1000 containers of cashew waiting at the jetties of the
barge operators. With the cashew season over already, there are still containers at the
port that have not been moved to their destinations. Shippers are sabotaging the efforts
of government in promoting Export and this needs to be addressed urgently.
- Aside from taking empty containers, shipping companies are currently operating as a
cartel. They charge anything they feel like. The stuffing and loading fees have become
as high as shipping costs. Exporters are being held to ransom with charges that cannot
be explained. Exporters are at the receiving end and it is unbearable.
- Nigerian exporters targeting the European market face a tariff disadvantage of up to
10%, whereas our competitors such as Ghana, Cote d’Ivoire and Kenya enjoy dutyfree access. Nigeria did not sign the EPA and some other preferential agreements
which countries are now entering into on individual basis. Nigeria needs to position
herself in a way that exporters can actually begin to enjoy preferential market access.
- We do a lot of promotion in Nigeria to the detriment of development. Development is
not only getting the products right or the standard specified, it is also developing a
market so that Nigeria SMEs after putting the effort into improving their products will
be able to access a guaranteed market. This is an incentive to continue to produce.
- Exporters must embrace quality and comply with market standards, disregard for
regulatory authorities adds to the rejection of products in international markets.
- There is no future in the export of charcoal or wood because of the fight against
businesses that degrade the environment. There is a policy against Charcoal Export
and exporters should not be caught off guard.
- In the EU markets Traceability is key when it comes to agro allied products. SON
provides information on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). Exporters should check the
- Public institutions should work more closely with the private sector (as agents) to
ensure quality standards are achieved across the country. It’s a collective mission.
September 16, 2021
August 10, 2021
NPNEN will host its 3rd Exporters Townhall meeting on the 25th of August 2021. This Townhall is a platform to address the challenges that exporters are facing with a view to addressing them. We have invited both State and Non-State actors to this meeting. We will continue to advocate for an enabling environment, while approaching the issues with evidence that comes from exporters experiences. Do not keep quiet when your voice needs to be heard.
Kindly register to join the conversation at http://bit.ly/exporterstownhall
We look forward to seeing you there.
April 3, 2020
AfCFTA What the Government Must Do for A Successful Implementation
The commitment of the president and all the government agencies are very critical element in the implementation programme. This needs to be demonstrated to the private sector in order to encourage them to invest their time, energy and money to take full advantage of the AfCFTA. To demonstrate this commitment, the presidency needs to put this in the front burner in all the activities of the president by mentioning it in all his economic related speeches at different functions and programmes he attends within and outside the country. This will make his ministers to be able to give the required support to the AfCFTA implementation committee and therefore ensure that their ministry, departments and agencies are not a clog in the wheel of progress of
I strong believe the first step that the government needs to take as a way of demonstrating commitment towards the AfCFTA is the appointment of a Special Assistant (SA) on Trade Across Borders who will work directly with the AfCFTA implementation committee by attending all their meetings, presenting their requests to the presidency and liaising with the various heads of ministries, departments and agencies to get the necessary cooperation and approvals. This special assistant is going to be a critical success factor in the implementation of AfCFTA because it will speed up the submission and approval of request at the presidency due to the fact that he is on ground to represent the implementation committee and follow up on the government for necessary approvals.
Secondly, the government have to demonstrate its commitment towards the implementation of AfCFTA by making deliberate policies that will encourage the exporters to want to export to African countries. This can be done through executive orders and acts of the parliament. Going by the timetable of the AfCFTA secretariat, the trading under this agreement will commence from August next year. That means the government have an ample time on its hand to put in place the right policies that will support the implementation of the AfCFTA. One of these policies must include incentives. Considering the high level of infrastructure deficit that any business operating in Nigeria has to contend with and the attendant increase in the cost of doing business that ensue, the government must of necessity put a system in place to give incentives to exporters. These incentives should come in the form of single digit loan for all exports going to Africa countries under the AfCFTA, rebate on air and sea freight, warehousing, local transport, duty on importation of raw materials and other statutory taxes. This is to ensure that Nigerian products are competitive in the African market. There should also be a deliberate policy towards the setting up of dedicated AfCFTA export terminals at major ports across the country. This is to ensure that goods being shipped under this scheme are examined for compliance and also given speedy clearance.
One of the major challenges being faced by the ECOWAS Trade Liberalisation Scheme (ETLS) which has consequently led to the low utilisation of the scheme is the inefficient processes that exporters need to go through in order to get the certificate of origin that makes their products eligible for the duty free access under the ETLS. In order to demonstrate its commitment to the successful implementation of the AfCFTA, the government needs to ensure that the process of obtaining the certificate of origin under the AfCFTA is fully automated, streamlined with paperless documentation, an online platform for tracking and feedback on the progress of application, devoid of any form of human interaction besides the visit to the production facility to ascertain the claim of the criteria for the rule of origin.
Also, it is very important to state that one of the factors that could prevent Nigeria and Nigerians from enjoying the benefits of AfCFTA is product quality issues. The committee must demonstrate its commitment to prevent the exportation of low quality products under the AfCFTA by ensuring that it closely works with the relevant government agencies at the port, especially the Nigeria Customs Service, to ensure that all goods to be shipped under AfCFTA are routed via the AfCFTA designated terminals where they will be inspected for quality assurance before they are shipped to final destination on the African continent. Another way of demonstrating commitment to the successful implementation of the AfCFTA in Nigeria is putting in place a policy that ensures the participation of the private sector in the Monitoring of items that are being imported into the Nigerian markets duty free under AfCFTA. There should also be punitive measures put in place to ensure that any government agencies or individuals that is aiding and abetting unwholesome practice that will undermine the efforts of the AfCFTA implementation committee is brought to book.
What is the use of all the effort being deployed by the government and the implementation committee if the manufacturers cannot get to promote their products in other African countries simply because of the cost and logistics challenges? The government have to demonstrate its commitment to the AfCFTA by organisation solo exhibition in different countries on the African continents by partnering with Chambers of Commerce in the destination countries and also supporting Nigerian businesses with funds needed to participate in these various promotional programmes
The areas of commitment described in this article are not exhaustive but are very critical and therefore worthy of consideration by the AfCFTA implementation committee. It is my hope that the implementation committee of the government will adopt some of the recommendations that are been prescribed in this article in order to make the implementation of the AfCFTA create the necessary jobs that will lift out of penury, the tens of millions of Nigeria that are currently living below the poverty line For the love of Nigeria, Africa and Mankind. Bamidele Ayemibo (email@example.com) Lead Consultant at 3T Impex Trade Academy
April 3, 2020
CBN Restriction on Open Account Trade: A Threat To AfCFTA Implementation
The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) has finally implemented a policy that has technically place a ban on the use of
Open Account trading (also known as Cash Against Document) on exportation from Nigeria. This policy has the
tendency to slow down export growth and prevent Nigeria from being part of the $16 trillion trade transaction done
on this term, which also amount to about 85% of global trade. It will reverse the upward trend currently seen in the
non-export volume and make the signing of and plans to take advantage of the African Continental Free Trade
Agreement (AfCFTA) a waste of time. This policy is being done on one hand through the recently released foreign
exchange manual that omitted Open Account as a payment method for exportation from Nigeria and on the other
hand, it is being enforced by omitting Open Account as a payment method on the new launched application
developed by the CBN to automate the processing and documentation of non-oil exportation from Nigeria. Both
the manual and the application stated that the payment method for export out of Nigeria will now be Letter of credit
(LC), Bill for Collection (BC) and Advance Payment (AP).
By way of definition, Open Account (Cash Against Document) trading is said to happen in international trade when
an exporter ship goods to the buyer abroad and also sends the shipping documents to the buyer in order to be
able to clear the goods and effect payment for the goods at a later date. This method leaves the exporter exposed
to the risk of payment defaults. This then prevents the exporter from being able to repatriate the funds for the
shipped goods back to the country. Since CBN has technically ban this payment method by omitting in both the
foreign exchange manual and the application being developed for export processing, we are then left with other
payment methods like LCs, BCs and APs.
Declining Usage of Letter of Credit
The philosophy behind this policy is to ensure that all the export proceeds resulting from shipments of goods out of
Nigeria are duly repatriated. Even though the reason for this policy is good, however, I think the way the CBN is
going about the enforcement of the repatriation policy is wrong. This is because this policy is a typical example of
throwing away the baby with the bath water. This is because the policy has the tendency to badly affect the
volume of non-oil export trade from Nigeria since the other payment methods (like LCs, BCs and APs) that are
allowed constitute less than 15% of global trade. According to a 2010 report of Society for Worldwide Interbank
Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT), the LCs issued for trade transactions in the world constitutes about 9.3%
of total volume of world trade while BCs constitutes just 1.4%, Open Account is about 85% while other payment
methods including AP constitutes about 4%. The 2019 global trade finance report of the International Chamber of
Commerce (ICC) showed that from 2013 to 2017, there has been about 12.7% reduction in the usage of LCs for
trade transactions across the world. The report of Unicredit Group in 2015 showed that the ratio of LCs to Open
Account usage which used to be 80% to 20% respectively in 1978 is now 19% to 81% in 2013. The report went
further to state that “the world trade volumes have seen a startling increase in open account transaction over the
recent years. Already today more than 80 % of the total world trade volume (export) is settled by clean payment
(open account). This impressive ratio is expected to grow even further in the future. Therefore, banks are
compelled to offer their corporate clients, products that support fully automated processing as well as cost savings
combined with payment assurance and financing options”.
Why Open Account Trading is Growing
The decline seen in the usage of LCs and BCs in trade transactions despite the increase in the trade volume in the
world has been attributed to several reasons and some of them include the following: Operational and
transactional inefficiency due to paper handling, filing of documents and retrieval of the trade transaction files;
Extended transaction timeframes caused by discrepancies in the document presented on LCs transactions and
this has been stated to affect 70% of the trade transactions in the world; Delays in settlement caused by seeking
for waivers on discrepancies; High cost of trade caused by commissions and charges of LC and amendments;
Transactional and operational risk caused by buyer refusal of the goods or seeking for discount base on
The reason why CBN can afford to take this step despite the far reaching negative impact that could result in the
non-oil export sector is likely because the management is either not aware of the volume of trade done via Open
Account and hence the implication of banning it or the management is thinking that if the restrictions on Open
Account trading worked for import, then it can work also for export. I don’t think the first option is case because
that level of ignorance will be an indictment on CBN as highly placed organisation. However, if the CBN is doing
this because of the second reason, which means if it worked for import, then it can work also for export then the
CBN need to be educated on the driver of Open Account trading in the world. The global shortage of trade finance
is contributing to an intense competition in export markets. This is especially the case is less developed markets.
Because many importers cannot arrange import financing sufficient to book purchases, exporters are unable to
find enough importers to purchase their goods. Exporters are therefore compelled to offer Open Account terms to
importers or lose sales to their competitors. Therefore, it worked when it was done for importation because it is
safer for the seller, buyers generally have option to buy from another seller and Nigeria is a big market that every
seller wants to enter. However, the current reality will not allow the policy to work in our favour on the export side.
Negative Impact of Stopping Open Account Trading
The implication of this technical ban on Open Account trading in Nigeria is going to be a significant decline in the
volume of non-oil exportation because: One, it will cause the Nigerian exporters to loose business their
competitors since many competitors will be willing offer Open Account terms to potential buyers. Two, this action
will lead to increased level of illegal exportation. That means, many exporters are going to start shipping goods out
of the country without documentation. This will be a repeat of what happened during the last economic recession
when many exporters stopped using NXPs to process their export transactions through the banks due to the
losses they were incurring by being forced to sell their export proceeds to the banks at a loss whenever they
process NXP. Three, if CBN is able to prevent illegal exportation through the sea, there will be a surge in the
exportation out of Togo, Benin and Ghana because many Nigerians are going to be shipping their goods out of
Nigeria via road and then ship it out of these neighbouring countries via sea. This is already happening especially
from the northern part of the country due to the delays at the Lagos port and this ban is only going to further
aggravate such practices and lead increase in such shipments. All these are going to have a negative impact on
exportation in Nigeria and make the current drive towards increase in non-oil export and implementation of
AfCFTA a waste because the inflow of the export proceeds will start declining very fast.
Recommendations To CBN
Instead of running away from Open Account trading, the question we should be asking is, how are other nations of
the world able to do use this method and still get the proceeds repatriated? It is obvious that they have found a
solution that we are yet to search for. First thing first, I think the CBN needs to first work with the relevant agencies
to reduce the delays at the Lagos port which currently handles about 60% of the shipments out of the country.
Also, there is a need to effectively track all shipments out of Nigeria by ensuring that the shipping lines have
access to the current application being designed by the CBN to drive exportation. This is to ensure that the
shipping lines pick up the NXP numbers of all shipments from the systems by themselves and not relying on the
exporters to provide it for them. This will curb the incident of forged NXP numbers currently used by some
exporters to do illegal exportation. This will reduce illegal export via the seaport and help the CBN to capture
almost all exports out of Nigeria. After this, the CBN needs to educate all exporters across the country together
with their banks on the implication of non-repatriation of export proceeds and also sanction the exporters
and NOT the Banks for non-repatriation. However, before they are sanctioned, the CBN needs to train them on
how to prevent the risk of payment in their export transactions. Kindly note that, 3T Impex Trade Academy has
identified seven ways to prevent the risk of payment default in Open Account trading and we are willing to partner
with CBN to deploy this training programme for exporter across the country. Implementation of the sanctions on
erring exporters after the training will greatly deter others from repeating this unpatriotic act.
In conclusion, I will like to appeal to and plead with the CBN to rescind on its decision to technically ban the use of
Open Account trading as payment methods in Nigeria. This is to ensure that the current increase in volume of non-
oil exportation out of the country does not nosedive, so we don’t end up building the economy (and non-oil export
volume) on one hand and then using our own hand to destroy it at the same time.
For love for growth of trade in Nigeria and Africa in general.
Lead Consultant, 3T Impex Trade Academy
April 3, 2020
INCENTIVIZING NIGERIA’S EXPORTS: A STRATEGIC IMPERATIVE
OLUFEMI BOYEDE, CITP
CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL TRADE PROFESSIONAL
Since adopting the Structural Adjustment Programme proposed (more like dictated) by the IMF in
1986, successive Nigerian Governments have mouthed the desire to diversify the base of the
country’s economy away from oil. In the earlier years, there was a welcoming realization that
Nigeria’s only salvation was a deliberate concentration on developing her non-oil exports. In
preparation for this new direction, the Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida administration created a few
structures, the most prominent being the establishment of the Nigerian Export Promotion Council as
an autonomous agency with full mandate for the new economic direction. The administration followed this by promulgating, under the Export Incentives and Miscellaneous Decree number 41 of 1986, a basket of eighteen different incentives to support the country’s export drive. Nigerian Export Promotion Council then launched, and quickly etched itself on the Nigerian space via a very catchy, sexy and forward-looking slogan: EXPORT NOW FOR SURVIVAL. This slogan has metamorphosed, through the years and through successive leaderships at the agency to what we now have today, under the charismatic personality of Olusegun Awolowo as EXPORT BUSINESS, TOMORROW’S BUSINESS (I wonder why it is not TODAY’S BUSINESS?). A dedicated implementation of a few of these incentives at the onset (and through the years up to 2011-2012 actually saw a significant growth in Nigeria’s participation (and share ) of the international market in terms of volume, value and new markets. As an example, Nigeria’s total export value rose from N98.457,223,020 in 2005 to N17, 321, 887,924,274 in 2010! A progressively increasing number of new exporters were also added. Over the past few years however, there has been a decline in terms of Government’s understanding of the critical importance of supporting non-oil exports. Of the eighteen incentives that were introduced in 1986, only one – the Export Expansion Grant, EEG, is active today. Even this life-saver for the Nigerian exporter has witnessed a drastic reduction. In the 2020 national budget which was recently signed into law for example, a paltry sum of N2.5bn has been allocated to export incentives (only N1.9bn for EEG). In a global market place described as a fiercely competitive economic battlefield, every country supports their exporters to beat the foreseen and generally obvious competition.
Why Non-oil Exports?
With over 5,000 exportable commodities in available in Nigeria as well as over 48 Minerals and Gemstones in heavy commercial and exportable quantities, it certainly must baffle other countries of the world, why Nigeria would continue toundervalue her potential to become an export-driven economy. Nigerian entrepreneurs have great potentials for profitable participation in international business because Nigeria:
- Is rich in resources
- Has a continuously emerging consumer class;
- Has potentials for sharpened efficiency;
- Has incredible growth potential and thus;
- Can become en emerging market leader;
- Nigeria is obviously the Gateway for Sub Saharan Africa
- Nigeria’s economic situation of today demands that one needs to, wherever possible, “manufacture” his own hard currency.
- International Business (Exports) is the processing factory for hard currency as sale is made in foreign currency
- For the country, export trade enables the country to build her foreign reserves and thereby shore up the value of the Naira.
- It also guarantees convertibility of the national currency.
With the newly created One Africa market, Nigeria can speedily grab and control a significant share of this new “foreign” market.
It is estimated that 70% of goods in West Africa’s markets originate from Nigeria
A Perennial Misconception About the EEG Although, as stated earlier in this write-up, the EEG remains the only functional incentive in Nigeria, there is an erroneous perception on the part of the authorities that export business is already, in itself, a very profitable business and therefore requires no further support. Indeed, most of the Government authorities liken the EEG to oil subsidy and classify it as fraught with all manners of abuse and fraud, and at best, unnecessary. But, a more objective perspective would be to understand a few of the realities below:
1. Most of the multinationals “controlling” Nigeria’s non-oil export business today, bring in their operating funds at single-digit borrowing rates. The indigenous Nigerian exporter, if he is lucky to secure a loan to fund his exports, must accept the going lending rates of between 22% and 28% per annum. Lending rates in Nigeria are one of the highest in the world. How would this exporter survive, talk less compete, in an international market where prices are uniform and most times regulated by international market exchanges?
2. The perennial decay, deficiency and sometimes absolute lack of trade infrastructure (efficient transportation system from farm-gate to port, power, water, etc), the proliferation of pre-export agencies at the ports, the high costs of pre-shipment logistics, our never-ending port congestion, etc, exert an overall exorbitant extra cost on the unit price of Nigeria’s export products. There is, therefore, no doubt, that unless they can somehow have a hedge to fall back on, Nigerian exporters and their products start out second best against competitors from other parts of the world. The EEG as at today, is the only incentive that can provide such a hedge. The obvious questions then would be why Nigeria’s authorities are oblivious of these realities and if anything is being done to bring it to their attention. There is no doubt that Nigeria’s export sector is unorganized, with only the Export Group of the Manufacturers Association of Nigeria (and recently, the Organised Private Sector Exporters Association, OPEXA- which are in themselves restrictive in membership) claiming to represent the interest of exporters. In other climes, a sector as sensitive as this, and holding so much potential for the country’s economic redirection, would have a strong lobby or pressure group that provides evidence-based advocacy that would improve Government’s understanding of the issues and help it (Government) to evolve new and efficient support schemes.
In the continued absence of such a vehicle (or seeming difficulty with the two bodies above- mentioned), the most vocal effort, over the past five years, has been the Trade Stream of UKAID’s Project Development Framework II. Through its Exporters’ Voice, PDFII has held not less than twelve dialogues, with each focused on key issues plaguing Nigeria’s export growth. Their approach has been consultative, broad-based and research-supported. Relevant Government Regulatory Agencies, Certification Companies, Banks and financial institutions, Logistics Services Providers, active exporters and knowledgeable export consultants have been the pool from which PDFII draws participants for each dialogue. The results have been not only comprehensive and impressive, but, more importantly, unanimous. Nigeria now boasts of a Non-Oil Export Community of Practice as well as a non-oil export cooperative that includes members from all the segments of the non-oil export value-chain. PDFII is currently encouraging the Community of Practice to set up a Coalition of Nigerian Non-Oil Exporters. It is our humble opinion that PDFII has done more than a lot to support Nigeria’s non-oil export sector and should be commended. More importantly, it behoves on all and sundry in Nigeria’s non-oil export value chain, to ensure that the initiatives and programmes launched by the PDFII are sustained well beyond the project.
There is no understating the need to deliberately and proactively evolve a national non-export strategy that prioritises active support for non-oil exports through creative incentives to enhance and ensure competitiveness. Australia, a one of the world’s top-five exporting countries currently has about thirty-four (34) different incentives to support the country’s export trade by making her exporters and their exports continuously competitive. Nigeria has the capacity and the resources to do the same. So, LET’S Do IT.
Olufemi Boyede, CITP/FIBP
MD/CEO, Koinonia Ventures Limited, Nigeria
President, Koinonia Global Services Inc., Canada.